OPABAD: Optimization of inlet openings of the CTE HS3 “Quality of the indoor air”.

REFERENCE: BIA2006-05718
Ministry of Education and Science.
EFFECTIVE PERIOD: 01/10/06 - 30/09/09
University: Universidad de Valladolid
Institution: Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura. Ventilation Lab.

Researchers:
        - Jesús Feijó Muñoz (Research coordinator)
        - Francesc Daumal Domenech (UPC)
        - Santiago Vega Amado (UVa)
        - María Jesús Dios Viéitez (UCD)
        - Marisol Camino Olea (UVa)
        - Consolación Ana Acha Román (UPM)
        - Alberto Meiss Rodríguez (UVa)

Colaborating researchers
        - María José Barroso Mate (UVa)
        - Miguel Ángel Padilla Marcos (UVa)

Contributors
        - Clodoaldo Ortega Franco (UVa)
        - Ramón Alejos Ducal (maintenance UVa)

Monitoring:
        - Ministry of Housing (General Subdirectorate of Innovation and Quality)
        - ICC Eduardo Torroja (CSIC)
        - Acoustics Institute (CSIC)
        - Alder Venticontrol (firm)

ABSTRACT
The intention is to progress in the influence of the inlet openings on the air quality of the rooms to which it serves. For this reason the compatibility of what we understand for indoor air quality (directly related to spaces ventilation) and the desired thermal and acoustic comfort in the outside inlet rooms is studied. All this with the maximum energetic efficiency. It is expected, too, that the previous study is accompanied as a goal of real solutions proposes to the existing problem with different typologies of opening, even of turning into what the CTE names "accepted solutions".

PURPOSE
Considering the inevitable trend to impenetrability of the indoor environment in housing regarding the outside, because it contributes to energetic and acoustic benefits, it is necessary to implement a system that keeps comfortable ventilation. That should mean the least energetic cost and a maximum sound attenuation of the outside noise. Therefore, optimizing the just said compatibility of the indoor air quality, directly related to the spaces ventilation, to the thermal and acoustic comfort with the outside inlet rooms is what is searched for. And all this, with the maximum energetic efficiency, in other words, with the maximum ventilation efficiency that would allow to reduce the flow rage of air renovation.

GOALS
The airms set out in this project are completely placed inside of the "National Construction Program" in the section "2.4. Improvement of constructive systems services, especially in relation with functionality, safety and habitability basic requirements, ", since they are meant to contribute to the development and habitability improvement of housing.

It is obvious that the concern for ventilation in housing is new. In fact, there was an authentic legal vacuum up to the assumption of the Technical Code in Spain. Probably due to some other more urgent problems. And it is the society current progress which causes a quality of life increase and with it the comfort in housing, which also takes control of all its parameters among which there is a rational ventilation of its spaces. In this way, a series of studies are settled on:

        - Influence of the room physical proportions in the efficiency.
        - Influence of the inlet and through openings in the efficiency of the location.
        - Influence of the inlet opening format in the efficiency.
        - Influence in the efficiency of the entrance air and the one of the room temperature.
        - Influence of the flow rate of ventilation in the efficiency of the variation.
        - Influence of the inlet opening format in the acoustic transmission.

With all of them we will be able to improve the architectural design criteria in housing in order to optimize its ventilation, even though the creation of possible inlet openings prototypes is previewed.

Another aim that might be called instrumental, but essential to achieve the mentioned purposes would be the laboratory improvement where the proposed works will be developed. This improvement is basically set into the completion of the existing material equipment and which is described in the budget that accompanies the request.

METHODOLOGY AND WORK SCHEDULE
        1. Bibliographical update
                1.1. Study of books and chapters, magazine articles, communications in congresses and web pages of interest.
                1.2. Creation of a computer server with a database to classify and centralize the whole documentation that the project generates.

        2. Study of typologies of room and openings.
                2.1. Classification of the most common variants in bedroom and living-rooms distribution of in housing.
                2.2. Design proposal of different inlet openings in which a convergence of the health is presumed, the energetic saving, the thermal and the acoustic comfort.

        3. Adequacy of the existing Conditioning Laboratory for the new needs.
                3.1. Remodeling of the test chamber and its conditioning facilities to: simultaneously reproduce the hygrotherms outside and inside environments by means of accessories to the current air conditioning equipment; watertight improvement of the chamber replacing doors and other union materials; to improve conduits with plenum, hatches, fans, electrical and communications installation and to complete different tools.
                3.2. Scientific equipment enlargement with filters for new tracer gases that complete the existing equipment of gas detection tracers for photoacoustic effect; update of the existing equipment of Brüel's and Kjaer acoustic measurements; learning of the managing of that equipment and of its application software.

        4. Software CFD upgrade (computational fluid dynamics)
                4.1. Selection of simpulation programs for finite specific elements for ventilation: Flovent, AirPack, Fluent, AEA, CD, EFD.lab, FlowMatch de Dantec Dynamics, Phoenix, Ansys CFD and others.
                4.2. Study and detailed application of the chosen programs.

        5. Experimental study of ventilation efficiency with tracer gases.
                5.1. Study with constant air wealth and temperature with different openings formats and several emplacements according to previous typologies.
                5.2. Alternative study to the previous one with variable air wealth and constant temperature.
                5.3. Alternative study to the previous one with fixed air flow rate and different inlet air temperatures.
                5.4. Alternative study to the previous one with variable flow rate air and temperatures.
                5.5. Alternative study to the previous one with thermal pre-trated flow rate inlet air.
                5.6. Production of pure protocols of the fulfilled experimental tests.
                5.7. Study of conclusions and partial publications forecast of experimental results

        6. Numerical study (virtual simulation) of ventilation efficiency with CFD's software (Computational Fluid Dynamics).
                6.1. Geometries introduction and establishment of fulfilled tests contours conditions.
                6.2. Experimental fulfilled cases calculation and program validation, throughout the coincidence of the previous information with the one obtained.
                6.3. Obtaining of variants result not tested on laboratory but assimilable for the previous approval.
                6.4. Performance protocols production for the numerical study and for the results validation.
                6.5. Conclusions study and partial publications forecast of the numerical results supported by experimental validation.

        7. Acoustic study of the inlet openings facing the noise of the traffic. Complementary modifications proposal to reduce aereal noise transmission. Experimental measurements fulfillment with acoustic analyzer. Conclusion obtaining and partial publication forecast.

        8. Final conclusions and results publication. Distinguished publications for the architectural design and eventually for the openings design are predicted. The first one is destined to optimize spaces and openings distribution, and the second one directed to the offer of particular openings liable to be industrialized.