Publishing coming from DESOALEE Project: the outdoor space of DB-HS3 “quality of air in indoor spaces”. Development of alternative solutions.
Ministry of Housing, active from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2009
Many buildings have been designed and built with courtyards to supply the light and healthy air demands to the dwellings. However, confined air quality in many of them is unhealthy for human use due to the diminished ability to renew the air.
The purpose of the study is to catalog different models of isolated building courtyards under isothermal conditions, according to their dimensions. The goal is to quantify the efficiency of air exchange in each model and analyze the influence of size in controlled external conditions. In addition, current regulations in Spain are compared with the obtained results.
In conclusion, the efficiency of ventilation ratio for courtyards in buildings depends on its design.
Outdoor spaces are air volumes between buildings that are open to atmospheric air. Surrounding buildings hinder and alter airflow, which affect the exchange process and its quality. Given that this outdoor air is captured to ventilate a building’s interior, the geometric characteristics and wind exposure of these outdoor spaces are vital to optimising these processes. One of the parameters under study is the variable wind speed. The goal of this article is to ascertain whether different wind velocities affect airflow patterns in these spaces. To this end, eight archetypal shape/volumetric cases of urban buildings are examined from an air exchange efficiency perspective.
Practical application: The result is described by a mathematical expression that links the Exchange efficiency with a range of wind velocities (0.75–6.00 m/s), which confirmed that this wind velocity range implies variations of only ±1.0% in interior courtyards, ±1.6% in adjacent exterior spaces between buildings, and 2.4% in the considered control volume.
Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 2016, Vol. 37(1) 33-50. doi: 10.1177/0143624415596441
The goal of this piece of work is classifying the most representative casuistry of constructive typologies of outdoor spaces (patios/courtyards) and of the climatic and meteorological zones in Peninsular Spain, Baleares and Canarias. The process includes a constructive typological study on outdoor spaces, based on current house design normative and design and quality regulations of social housing. Additionally the most representative cities of Spain were selected based on climatic rankings made by the Technical Building Code (In Spanish, CTE), and the meteorological data of wind (average and maximum speed, both by the hour and by the month, and wind direction) of equinoccio months (March and September) and solstice months (June and December) taken from the Regulation UNE 100001 and the State Agency of Meteorology.
This study is expected to be the base of further investigation on the possibility of air quality in courtyards being enough for air admission in housing and give alternative solutions to outdoor spaces to improve ventilation efficiency, developing an alternative study using an experimental in lab model, and a numerical model with CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) software.
Publishing coming from OPABAD Project: Optimization of inlets in CTE, indoor spaces air quality.
Ministry of Education and Science, active from 01/10/2006 to 30/09/2009
Age-of-the-air in rooms according to the environmental condition of temperature: A case study
The study does research on the efficiency of ventilation in a premise representing a generic kitchen, that following the CTE’s model are, along bathrooms, typical spaces of air extraction from the rest of the house.
For that, a representative habitational typology was chosen; and a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) computer program was applied to it. This program is specialized on gas flow and calculation of air age, and has let us multiple simulations measuring in each case the efficiency.
This numerical study would lack all accuracy and rigor if it wasn’t for the validation of its results, made using an exhaustive experimental procedure in laboratory with photoacustical tracer gas testing.
The obtained results have made possible adding architectonical design criteria in this kind of premises, so as to improve the indoor air’s quality. Specifically some simple floor plan diagrams were obtained in which, according to each one of the admission placements, efficiencies are classified of each one of the extraction settings.
The developed work has also been used as basic research, being a big part of the effort dedicated to perfecting numerical and experimental procedures, so as to serve as base for future research.
The presentation encompasses the guidelines that govern the development of the “Optimization of inlets of CTE HS3”, framed inside of the National Program I+D+i and cofinanced by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Housing.
Focused on the search for efficiency in housing ventilation systems, the work makes a global study of the admission and air transit premises with the goal of establishing architectural design guidelines for the use of architects. This enables to get constructive layouts that reduce the necessary ventilation flow as a direct consequence of a better system efficiency and, preserving indoor air quality, collaborate to global energy saving.
The goal is to show the efficiency results in housing hybrid ventilation systems, following the parameters set by Spanish legislation DB-HS3. The goal is to show the ventilation results over air transit in hallways, halls and lobbies.
With this aim some representative typologies have been selected, and making a simultaneous study using an experimental lab model with the tracer gas technique, and a numerical model with CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) software.
The numerical validation process enables to simulate different situations different from the experimental model and obtain conclusions applicable to housing architectural design, as well as improving the housing’s indoor air quality.
Inside of the “Optimization of inlets in CTE HS 3, indoor spaces air quality – OPABAD” investigation program, the influence of inlets to the rooms they serve is being worked on. The study encompasses the guidelines in which this research takes place, in its dual aspect, numerical and experimental.
The gathered results have served to give architectonical design criteria to this king of premises, with the aim of improving the quality of its indoor air. The developed work has, at the same time, served as basic research, as a great part of the effort has been used to improve the numerical and experimental procedures, with the intention of being of help for future investigation
The goal is to show the results of housing hybrid ventilation, following the parameters of Spanish legislation DB-HS3. It summarizes the studies made on air extraction behavior in rooms, such as bathrooms and kitchens.
The process includes a double aspect research, experimental and numerical with CFD programs that, starting from a typological analysis, makes possible to gather architectural design guidelines with the aim of improving the quality of indoor air in the premises.
In the study of air flow a dual research is recommended, numerical and experimental. In first place, a premise typology representing a generic kitchen has been chosen: following the CTE(Technical Building Code- HS3) is along bathrooms a representative premise on ventilation air extraction.
In the numerical study a CFD program(Airpak 2.1, Ansys) has been applied; it being specialized on gas flow and measurement of the air age concept. Every possible and different option in turbulence models and convergence standards has been studied, so as to narrow down as much as possible the possible results.
This numerical study needs validation of its results, done through an exhaustive experimental procedure in the laboratory using photoacustical techniques of traces gases.
Once validated the numerical study, multiple variants of design are made using the numerical procedure, letting the calculation of multiple variables, among them ventilation efficiency.
Publishing coming from the EFIVEN: Development of methodology for the estimation of ventilation efficiency on housing premises.
Ministry of Science and Technology, active from 03/03/2003 to 02/03/2006
The study shows the ventilation efficiency results gathered in typical residential premises of ventilation air extraction, such as bathrooms and kitchens.
With that goal some representative typologies were chosen, and a double study has been made; an experimental model in laboratory with photoacustical tracer gas techniques, and a numerical model using CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) software techniques.
The appropriate validation of the numerical process has let us simulate a variety of commonplace cases different to the experimented model. Thanks to them it was possible to gather architectural design conclusions from the houses’ rooms in order to improve indoor air quality.
When an investigation is undercourse there are occasions in which tools and essay-making systems are perfectly defined; in other cases, as in ventilation, it is necessary to make way creating a preliminary work on how to take on the investigation. In our case, it has been necessary to design and build a chamber in order to conduct essays that simulate ventilation conditions in a house’s rooms.
The quality of a ventilation system depends on the number of air renovations per hour and the efficiency of the ventilation system’s air diffusion
In this article a computing tool capable of measuring the efficiency of ventilation for different typologies of ventilation systems is shown, using numerical simulation.
The development of the computing tools has been made through a general purpose fluid mechanics program, and its validation has been completed with experimental data gathered from a real scale test chamber. For different base configurations the distributions of average local age of the air have been determined, using traces gasses and photoacustic spectroscopy.
The developed tool lets the preliminary evaluation of different ventilation system configurations in a house, without having to reach its implementation.
Ventilation is the process that allows to replace the dirty, indoor ambient air of a premise for fresh air, being it through natural or mechanical means; without taking into account if the incoming air spreads insideall the enclosure, or if it displaces the present contaminants. In order to evaluate the quality of ventilation the ventilation efficiency concept is used, a parameter hard to measure because of the great number of parameters it depends on.
It’s expected to create tool capable of measuring the ventilation’s efficiency in residential premises. This is achieved by introducing the concept of average local age of the air, knowing if the air diffusal is produced correctly, independently of the number of air renovations per hour, which value is specified by the regulations.
A model has been created, using a CFD numerical code that measures the air’s age, simulating natural ventilation in a specific enclosure. Following that, the experiments are made in a chamber, of same measures than the one of the simulated model, and using traces gas techniques and photoacustic spectroscopy the age of the air is gathered on the most representative places; letting this way to validate the results gathered numerically.
In this communication it’s expected to create an abstract of the classification of the different types of residential premises related to the parameters that define their natural ventilation, enabling to later make simulations with the chosen types and proceed to validate the results.
Prior to the classification of the premises the more common types of housing have been established: two-front dwelling, two front in corner dwelling, front and inner courtyard dwelling, one front dwelling, row dwelling, all at a varying number of floors.
Once selected these types the premises that compose them have been classified, according to parameters that may be significative in the study of their natural ventilation: proportion and volume, air admission(direct from the exterior through openings, indirect, through another premise, or a combination of them), air extraction from the premise directly to the exterior or through another premise, the position of the admission and outlets in the wall, the relative position of the entries and exits of air, the connections between different premises and the height placement of the premise in the building.
Publishing unaligned with specific projects.
Indoor air regulations of the Technical Building Code (CTE)
FINANCING ENTITY: Instituto de la Construcción de Castilla y León
PARTICIPANT ENTITIES: Ministry of Development and Instituto Eduardo Torroja
VALIDITY PERIOD: Between 2001 and 2005
RESEARCHER ON CHARGE: Feijó Muñoz,Jesús
- ANALYSIS STUDY OF THE NEW ENERGY FROM THE UPPER COUNCIL OF SPANISH ARCHITECTS; Feijo, J; Official Architects College of Castilla y León. Valladolid-2004